Monday, June 25, 2007

St. Isidore -- The Third Age of the World and The Fourth Age of the World


13. Abraham, at age 100, bore Isaac from the "liberated" Sarah. But previously he had born, from his handmaiden Hagar, Ishmael, from whom came the people of the Ishmaelites, who later were called "Agarenes" and finally, "Saracens."

14. Isaac, at age 60, bore twins, of whom the first was Esau, from whom came the Edomites, and the second, Jacob, who bore the cognomen "Israel," after whom the Israelites were named. In this time, the kingdom of the Greeks began, where Inachus was the first to rule.

15. Jacob, at age 91, bore Joseph. In these times, Serapis, son of Jove, king of the Egyptians, upon dying, was lifted up among the gods and the city of Memphis was founded in Egypt. In that time, at Lake Triton, Minerva appeared in the form of a virgin. She is said to have excelled with many inventions. She is said to have been the inventor of craftsmanship. She invented the shield and the bow and she taught how to make spears and dye wool. In this age also King Phoroneus, son of Inachus, excelled. He was the first to institute laws and trials in Greece.

16. Joseph lived 110 years. From this time, Greece, with Argos ruling, began to have crops, with seeds imported from elsewhere. One hundred forty four years after the death of Joseph, the Jews found themselves in servitude in Egypt. Prometheus, whom fables imagine to have formed men out of mud, is recorded to have lived in these times. At this time also, his brother Atlas discovered astrology and was the first to consider the movement and order of the sky. Also, Mercury, grandson of Atlas, was expert in many arts. On account of this, upon his death, he was lifted up among the gods. In that age also, Proclytus was the first to harness a team of horses. At the same time Cecrops founded Athens and called the people of Attica "Athenians" after the other name of Minerva. He also was the first to order Jove to be adored with a gentile rite, immolating a bull in sacrifice. At this time Corinth was founded in Greece and there the art of painting was discovered by Cleanthes. At that time the Curetes and Corybantes were the first to invent harmonious and modulated formations of soldiers. At that time also a flood in Thessaly under Deucalion and a fabulous fire with Phaethon are recorded to have happened.

17. Moses, at age 40, guided the people, liberated from servitude in Egypt, into the wilderness. At this time the Jews began to have, through Moses, both letters and law. At that time the Temple of Delphi was built. Viticulture was invented in Greece.

18. Joshua, the successor of Moses, led the people for twenty-seven years. In these times, Erichthonius, the prince of the Athenians, was the first to harness a team of horses in Greece.

19. Othniel led for forty years. Cadmus, the first to invent Greek letters, ruled in Thebes. At the same time Linus and Amphion were the first among the Greeks to excell in the art of music. The Idaean Dactylites, at the same time, discovered the use of iron in Greece.

20. Ehud led for eighty years. In these times fables were devised: about Triptolemus who, born aloft with the wings of dragons, distributed food to the poor as he flew at the command of Ceres; about the Hippocentaurs, in which were combined the characteristics of man and horse; about Phrixus and his sister Helle who crossed the sea conveyed by rams; about the harlot Gorgon who had serpents for hair and anyone looking at whom was turned into stone; about Bellerophon who fought (on the back of) a horse that flew with wings; about Amphion who, with the music of the zither, moved rocks and stones.

21. Deborah led for forty years. In this same time Apollo discovered the zither and invented the art of medicine. Then, also, fables were devised about Daedalus and his son Icarus who flew with wings they fashioned themselves. In this age, Latinus Picus, thought to be the son of Saturn, first ruled.

22. Gideon led for forty years. In the age the city of Tyre was constructed. Also the other Mercury discovered the lyre and gave it to Orpheus. In this time Philemon was the first to institute the chorus in Pythium. At that time also Linus of Thrace, the [music] teacher of Hercules, wassaid to have been illustrious in the art of music. In addition the navigation of the Argonauts is recorded.

23. Abimelech led for three years. He killed his 70 brothers. Hercules devastated Ilium and in Libya killed Antaeus, the inventor of the art of gymnastics.

24. Tola led for twenty-three years. In his times Priam ruled Troy, after Laomedon. A fable is told at that time about the beast of the Minotaur enclosed in the labyrinth.

25. Jair led for twenty-two years. At the same time Hercules instituted the Olympic competition. The nymph Carmentis invented Latin letters.

26. Jephthah led for six years. In his time, Hercules, living in his fifty-second year, injected himself with flames on account of the pain of his disease. At the same time Alexander raped Helen and the Trojan war surged for ten years. Ibzan led for seven years. The Amazons took up arms for the first time. Abdon led for eight years. In his third year, Troy was captured and Aeneas came to Italy.

27. Sampson led for twenty years. Ascanius, son of Aeneas, founded Alba. Also fables were devised about Ulysses and of the Sirens at the same time.

28. The priest Heli led for forty years. The Ark of the Covenant was captured by foreigners. The kingdom of the Sicyonans came to an end. Samuel and Saul led for forty years. The kingdom of the Lacedaemonians arose. And Homer is reputed to have been the first poet in Greece. From the promise of Abraham until David: 940 years. The third age came to an end in the year 4,125.


29. David ruled for forty years. Codrus, king of the Athenians, was killed as he voluntarily offered himself to the enemy for the well-being of the country. And Carthage was built by Dido, with Gath, Nathan, and Asapaht prophesying in Judea.

30. Solomon ruled for forty years. He (began) building the Temple of Jerusalem in the fourth year of his reign and finished it in the eigth year.

31. Rehoboam ruled for seventeen years. The kingdom of Israel was separated from Judah, the ten tribes being separated from the two, and they began to have kings in Samaria. In this age, Samos was founded and the sibyl Erythraea was regarded as illustrious.

32. Abijam ruled for three years. Under him Abimelech, high priest of the Jews, was regarded as illustrious. Asa ruled for forty-one years. Achias, Amos, Jehu, Joel, and Azaria prophesied in Judea. Josaphat ruled for twenty-five years. Elijah, Elisha, Abdias, Azarias, and Micaeas prophesied. Jehoram ruled for eight years. Elijah, Elisha, and Abdias prophesied. Ahaziah ruled for one year. Elijah, whose worthy miracles numbered seven, was taken up (by God).

33. Athalia ruled for seven years. The priest Jonadab, son of Rechab, was regarded as brilliant, etc. Joida the priest was the only one after Moses who was said to have lived 130 years. Joash ruled for forty years. Zacarias the prophet was killed. Elisha, whose miracles (virtutes) were said to number fourteen, died. Lycurgus was regarded as a distinguished lawmaker in Greece. Amaziah ruled for twenty-nine years. Some assert that Carthage was founded at this time, but others say earlier.

34. Azariah ruled for fifty-two years. The Olympic (games) were established for the first time by the Greeks. A sheep spoke in Greece. King Sardanapalus was burned willingly in a fire. The kingdom of the Assyrians was removed to Media. At that time, Hesiod the poet excelled. And Phidon Argivus discovered weights and measures, with Hosea, Amos, Isaiah and Jonah prophesying in this age in Judea.

35. Jotham ruled for sixteen years. Remus and Romulus were born, with Hosea, Joel, Isaiah, and Micah prophesying in Judea. Ahaz ruled for sixteen years. In his times Romulus founded Rome. And Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, moved the ten tribes of Israel from Samaria to Media, and sent the neighboring Samarites to Judea.

36. Hezekiah ruled for twenty-nine years. Under himIsaiah and Hosea prophesied. At this time Romulus first chose soldiers from among the people. He also chose one hundred most noble men from among the people, who, because of their age, were called "senators" and because of their care and solicitude were called "fathers of the republic."

37. Manasseh ruled for fifty-five years. At the same time Numa Pompilius was placed overthe Romans. He was the first to institute vestal virgins and priests among the Romans and he filled the city with a great number of false gods. He added two months to the ten months of the Roman year: he dedicated January to the heavenly gods and February to the gods of the underworld. At that time also, the sibyl Samia excelled.

38. Ammon ruled for twelve years. In his time Tullus Hostilius, king of the Romans, (74) took a census of the republic for the first time, because the population of the whole world was still unknown. He was also the first to use the color purple as a sign of honor. (4,556)

39. Josiah ruled for thirty-two years. Thales of Miletus (Milesius) excelled as a philosopher of physics. Having come to understand the defects of the sun with the most acute scrutiny, he was the first to investigate the number of astrology, with Jeremiah, Olda, and Sophonia prophesying in Judea.

40. Jehoiakim ruled for eleven years. In his third year Nebachodnezzar made captive Judea a tributary. At that time Daniel, Ananias, Azarias, and Misael excelled in Babylonia. Zedekiah ruled for eleven years. The king of Babylon, coming to Jerusalem a second time, led him away captive along with his people, the Temple having been burned down in the 454 year after its construction. At the same time, the woman Sappho excelled in Greece with various poems. Solon gave laws to the Athenians.

41. From David to the migration to Babylon: 485 years. The fourth age came to an end in the year 4,610.

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